You have 2 guitars, bass, drums and last but not least, vocals.
We will pan each instruments just like we see them at a concert.
Let’s see the most common way to pan them:
Guitars are at the left and right of the mix. You can pan them hard left and hard right (from 60% to 100% each for example).
Put the bass in the middle (0%). Experimenting is always positive, but don’t overdo it.
Putting the bass far away from the middle will confuse the listener.
There are 2 different perspectives that you can choose to pan drums.
You are sitting at the drums. Pan each drum as you see it.
Kick: Middle (or not far away from middle)
Snare: same as kick.
Toms: From left to right.
Hi-Hat: Little left
Ride: Little Right (or even near center if you like the bell to “hit your face”)
Cymbals/Overhead: From left to right
It’s exactly the opposite of Drummer’s Perspective. (hi-hat at right, ride bell left etc)
Feel free to experiment.
In most songs vocals dominate the mix. They are in the dead center of the mix.
You have more freedom to experiment though with backing vocals (60% Left/Right for example)
Of course, all the above are just some basic examples.
You can change anything if the mix asks for it.
If you want your guitars to have a “huge” sound you can Quad-track them rather than Double-track them, putting the added tracks to 80% each.
Many people just copy-paste the tracks. You have to re-record the tracks in order to make them sound fuller. You need 4 different recorded takes.